A more sustainable future requires fundamental societal changes. Real-world laboratories and transition experiments test sustainable alternatives in a protected niche. In order to introduce these alternatives into wider society and make them go mainstream, they need to be scaled up. The term upscaling is used here to indicate a qualitative shift towards a structural transformation of a societal system: new ways of doing, thinking, and organizing emerge in a given system as the new normal – the whole institutional structure changes. However, societal change is based on co-evolutionary processes which makes upscaling highly challenging. Augenstein et al. (2020) present three dilemmas of upscaling that are connected to core aspects of transdisciplinary research on sustainability transitions.
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